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Eric terrill; julia thomas, ann footer

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Eric terrill; julia thomas, ann footer on the pacific coast of southern california, located on the very coast from the border of mexico and the united states. With a current year population of 1,386,932 [9], it is the eighth most populous city in the united states and the county seat of san diego county, the fifth most populous county in the united states, with an estimated population of 3,286,069 residents as of 2021. The city is renowned for its mild year-round climate, natural deep water harbour, extensive beaches and parkland, long association with the united states navy, and recent transformation into a health and biotechnology development authority. San diego is the second largest city in the california team after los angeles.

Historically home to the kumeyaai native americans, san diego is called the birthplace of california as it became the winning site visited and settled by europeans within today's west coast of the united states. Landing in san diego bay in 1542, juan rodríguez cabrillo claimed the spanish territory, which became the foundation for alta california 200 years later. The presidio and mission of san diego de alcala, founded in 1769, formed the first european city in what is now california. In 1821, san diego became part of the newly proclaimed mexican empire, which 2 years later became the first mexican republic. California became part of the united states in 1848 after a mexican-american battle and was made a member of the union as a state in 1850.

San diego's main economic engines are military, defense, and tourism. , International trade, research and creation. The city is the economic center of the san diego-tijuana metropolitan area, the second most populous cross-border metropolitan area in the western hemisphere (after detroit-windsor), with approximately four,922,723 residents as of 2012. The main border crossing between san diego and tijuana, the port of travel at san ysidro, is considered the busiest international land border crossing in the world outside of asia (fourth busiest job overall). The city's airport, san diego international airport, is the world's busiest airport with the only runway in the world.[A][16]


What is the san dieguito complex appeared in the intima area at least 9000 years ago.[17] kumeyaay may have been culturally derived from the complex or migrated to the area around 1000 ad[18] archaeologist malcolm rogers has hypothesized that the early cultures of san diego were separated from the kumeyaay, however, this judgment is disputed and others say it does not account for cultural evolution. Rogers later revised his statements, but they had an impact on the development of historical accounts of the early history of san diego. Was the village of kumeyaay, through which the future settlement of san diego in the current old city arose. The village of kosaaai consisted of thirty to forty families living in buildings of a pyramidal configuration and supported by a source of fresh water from the hillsides.[20]

Spanish period[edit]

The first european to visit the region was the explorer juan rodríguez cabrillo, who sailed under the flag of castile but may have been born in porto. Sailing on his flagship, the san salvador, from navidad, new spain, cabrillo claimed the bay for the spanish empire in 1542 and named the place "san miguel". In november 1602, sebastian vizcaino was sent to the california coast card. Arriving on his flagship, the san diego, vizcaino surveyed the harbor and what is now mission bay and point loma, and named the area after the catholic saint didacus, a spaniard better known as san diego de alcalá . On november 12, 1602, friar antonio de la asension, a member of the vizcaino expedition, held the first recorded christian religious site in alta california in honor of the san diego festival.[23]

Continuous european colonization of california and san -diego began in 1769 with the arrival of four contingents of spaniards from new spain and baja california. Two naval groups reached san diego bay: "san carlos" under the command of vicente vila, which included engineer and cartographer miguel costanzo and a soldier and then the advancing governor pedro fages, and "san antonio" under the command of juan pérez.The initial overland expedition to san diego from the south was led by soldier fernando rivera, the waters included the franciscan missionary, explorer and chronicler juan crespi, followed by a second group led by the appointed governor gaspar de portola, even mission president (and now saint) junipero serra .[24]

In may 1769, portola founded fort presidio san diego on a hill by the san diego river above the village of kumeyaai kosoy,[20] which later became part of the spanish settlement[21], which made it the first european settlement in what is now the state of california. In july of the same year, mission san diego de alcalá was founded by franciscan friars under serra. The mission became the site of the kumeyaai rebellion in 1775, which forced the mission to move six miles (10 km) up the san diego don. By 1797, the mission boasted the richest indigenous population in alta california: more than 1,400 neophytes lived in and around the mission itself. Mission san diego was the southern anchor in alta california of the el camino real historic mission trail. Both presidio and mission are national ancient landmarks.[29][30]

Mexican period [edit]

In 1821, mexico gained autonomy from spain and san diego became part of the mexican territory of alta california.In 1822, mexico began trying to extend its power to the coastal territory of alta california. The fort on presidio hill was gradually abandoned, and the city of san diego grew out of the flat land under presidio hill.The mission was secularized by the mexican government in 1834 and much of the mission's land was given to former soldiers. Appeal to the governor to form a pueblo, and juan maria osuna was chosen as the first alcalde ("municipal magistrate"), defeating pio pico in the vote. Outside the city, mexican land grants boosted the number of california ranches, which boosted the local economy in a certain way. (See list of pre-state mayors of san diego.) However, san diego has been losing population overoveroverover overover overover duringduringduringduringduringduringduringduringduringduringduringduringduringduring duringduringduringduringduringduringduringduringduringduringduring 1830s from -for increasing tensions between the settlers and the natives of kumeyaai, but in 1838 the city lost its earned pueblo status, because its size decreased. From about 100 to one hundred and fifty inhabitants. The ranches up to san diego would be raided by kumeyaai in the late 1830s, and the city itself would be raided in the 1840s. Possibilities, from the writings of two compatriots involved in the often officially forbidden but economically significant trade in hides and fats for foreign visitors, where san diego was a major port and the only one with a suitable harbor: in 1804 and richard henry dana's extremely informative and convincing account of his journey 1834-1836, the classic "2 years before the mast".[33]
naval and land expedition to conquer alta california. They were comfortable at first, capturing the main ports, including san diego, but the californians south of alta california struck back. After a successful uprising in los angeles, the american garrison in san diego was expelled without firing a shot at dawn in october 1846. Mexican guerrillas held san diego for two to four weeks until october 24, 1846, when the americans recaptured it. For the next hundred days, the americans were blocked inside the pueblo. Skirmishes took place every day, snipers fired into the metropolis every night. Californians stole cattle from the pueblos, hoping to starve out americans and californian supporters. On december 1, the american garrison found out that general stephen w. Kearney's dragoons were at warner's ranch. Commodore robert f. Stockton sent a mounted force of fifty men under captain archibald gillespie to march north to meet him. Their joint team of one and a half hundred fighters, returning to san diego, faced about 93 californians under the command of andres pico. In the ensuing battle of san pascual, which took place in the san pascual valley, which is today an element of the city of san diego, the americans suffered the worst casualties of the campaign. Subsequently, a convoy led by lieutenant gray arrived from san diego, rescuing kearny's battered and blocked crew. "Treaty of cahuenga" of january 13, 1847.As a consequence of the mexican-american war of 1846-48, the territory of upper california, including san diego, was ceded to the united states by mexico under the terms of the treaty of guadalupe hidalgo in 1848. The mexican negotiators tried to keep san diego as part of mexico through this treaty, but the americans insisted that san diego "for all commercial purposes is almost as important to everyone as san francisco." The mexican-american border was eventually placed one league south of the southernmost point of san diego bay to include the entire bay in the united states.[35]

American period[edit]

The state of california was annexed to the united states in 1850. In the same year, san diego was designated the seat of the newly created san diego county and was incorporated into the city's roles. Joshua h. Bean, the last mayor of san diego, was elected as the first mayor. Two years later the city went bankrupt; [36] the california legislature repealed the city's charter and placed it under the protection of a board of trustees, on which it remained until 1889. The city charter was restored in 1889, and today's city charter was adopted in 1931.[37]

The original city of san diego was located at the foot of presidio hill, in an area that is now a state historic park old city of san diego. The location was not ideal: miles from navigable waters at the port of la playa. In 1850, william heath davis promoted new development along the bay called "new san diego", various miles south of the original settlement; however, for several decades, new development consisted of only a pier, a few office buildings, and an army depot to support fort yuma. After 1854, the fort began to be supplied by sea and steamboats along the colorado don, and the depot fell into disuse. From 1857 to 1860, san diego became the western terminus of the san antonio-san diego postal line, the earliest overland stagecoach and mail service from eastern america to california, which ran from texas through new mexico territory in less than month. 38]

In the late 1860s, alonzo horton suggested moving to the bay area, which he called "new town" and which became the center of san diego. Horton actively promoted the region, and people and businesses began to move to another city because its location on san diego bay was convenient for shipping. The new city soon eclipsed the original settlement, known to this day as the old city, and became the economic and governmental center of the city. However, san diego remained a relatively remote town until the advent of the sms railroad in 1878. In 1884–1886, john j. Montgomery made the first controlled flights by an american in an unpowered heavier-than-air glider south of san diego. In otay mesa, helping to found the new science of aerodynamics.

In 1912, san diego became the scene of a free speech struggle between the industrial workers of the world and the city government, which passed an ordinance banning free speech in soapbox row, leading to civil disobedience, lynching, police violence, the kidnapping of emma goldman's husband ben reitman, and various riots. San diego's proximity to tijuana during the mexican revolution made it important for the mostmost significant free speech battles of the wobbly era. Diego's first chinatown and soap row were demolished by anti-vice campaigners to make way for the gaslamp district. World's fair twice: the panama-california exposition (1915) and the california-pacific international exposition in 1935. Both exhibitions were held in the balboa botanical garden, and many of the spanish baroque properties built for such exhibitions still exist today. Key elements of the park. The buildings were designed to be temporary structures, but most of the former openelec developers continued to be used until they gradually fell into disrepair. Many of us ended up being rebuilt to match the original façade castings so as not to disturb the architectural style. A menagerie of exotic animals on display in 1915 served as the basis for the san diego zoo. In the 1950s, a citywide festival called fiesta del pacifico was held to celebrate the area's spanish and mexican past. In the 2010s, there was a proposal for a massive celebration of the 100th anniversary of balboa park, but the plans were abandoned when the firm organizing the celebration went out of business.[47]

Southern point peninsula loma was assigned for its own purposes literally in 1852. Over the next few decades, the army built up a number of coastal artillery batteries and named the region fort rosecrans.[48] a significant us navy presence began in 1901 with the establishment of a naval coaling station at point loma and expanded markedly throughout the 1920s.By 1930, the township was home to naval station san diego, naval training center san diego, naval hospital san diego, camp matthews, and camp kearny (now marine corps air station miramar). The city was also one of the first centers of aviation: even during the first world war, san diego proclaimed itself "the aviation capital of the west." The city was home to important aircraft builders and manufacturers such as ryan airlines (later ryan aeronautical) founded in 1925 and consolidated aircraft (later convair) founded in 1923. Charles a. Lindbergh's aircraft, the spirit of st.Louis, was stationed in san diego in 1927 by ryan airlines.[50] defense activities due to the presence of many military personnel. Installations and defense enterprises. The city's population grew rapidly during and then world war ii, more than doubling between 1930 (147,995) and 1950 (333,865) [52]. In the last months of the war, the japanese had a plan for a biological attack on a couple of us cities, starting from san diego. The plan was called "operation cherry blossom at night" and called for kamikaze planes filled with plague-infected fleas (yersinia pestis) to crash into urban areas, hoping to spread the plague in our metropolis and effectively kill a large number of people. Civilian population. The plan was to be launched on september 22, 1945, but was not implemented as japan surrendered five weeks earlier.[53][54][55]

After world war ii, the military continued to play big role in the local economy, but the cuts at the end of the end of the cold war took a heavy toll on the local defense and aerospace industries. The resulting downturn has prompted san diego leaders to seek to diversify the city's economy, focusing on research and science as well as tourism. The american tuna fishing fleet and tuna canning industry were based in san diego, "the tuna capital of the world." The first tuna cannery in san diego was established in 1911, and by the mid-1930s, over a thousand people were employed at the cannery. A large fishing fleet supported the canneries, usually staffed by immigrant fishermen from the japanese, and later from the portuguese azores and italy, whose influence is still felt in good areas like little italy and point loma. Due to increased investment and foreign competition, the last of the canning factories closed at the very beginning of the 1980s. Early 1980s, including the opening of horton plaza, the revitalization of the gaslamp district, and the construction of the san diego convention center; petco park opened in 2004. Outside of downtown, san diego annexed large tracts of land and expanded suburbs beyond the arctic circle, but also gained control of the port of entry of san ysidro.

As the cold war ended, the military dwindled as and defense spending. Since then, san diego has become the center of a nascent biotech industry and home to telecommunications giant qualcomm. San diego has also developed in the tourism industry thanks to the popularity of attractions such as the san diego zoo, seaworld san diego and legoland california in carlsbad. Monte marshall, san diego bay is "the surface expression of a nested graben extending from north to south". The rose canyon and point loma fault zones are part of the san andreas fault system. Some 40 miles (64 km) east of the bay are the laguna mountains in the peninsular ranges, which are recognized as part of the spine of the american continents.[62]

The city is located on average 200 the hills separating its mesas create small patches of natural open space scattered throughout the city and give it a hilly geography. Traditionally, san diegan residents built their homes and businesses on the plateau, leaving the city's canyons relatively wild. Thus, canyons give parts of the city a sense of segmentation, creating gaps between neighboring areas and contributing to a low-density car-targeted environment. The san diego river flows through downtown san diego from east to west, creating a river valley that is used to divide the city into north and south sections. During the historical period, and presumably before, the river changed its course between san diego bay and mission bay, with it its fresh water was the focus of early spanish explorers. Miguel costanzo, a cartographer, wrote in 1769: "when the indians asked with signs where a watering hole was laid out, they pointed to a grove that could be seen at a considerable distance to the northeast, giving the impression that a river or stream flows through them. The like, and that they will bring our people to him if they follow him." [65] [66] this river was the san diego river.Several estuaries and the mission trails regional park are also located between the developed areas of the city, and separate them.

Notable peaks in the downtown area include mount coles, the highest point in the community at 1,591 feet (485 m). ); [8] black mountain is superb at 1,558 feet (475 m) and mount soledad at its best at 824 feet (251 m). To the east of the city are the cuyamaca and laguna mountains, and beyond the mountains are wilderness areas. The cleveland national forest is a half-hour drive from our sun company. -Diego numerous farms are located in the valleys northeast and southeast of the city. Ranked #1 among the 50 most populous cities in the united states.[67] parkscore ranks city park systems based on a formula that analyzes area, accessibility, services, and investment.

Communities and neighborhoods[edit]

The city of san diego recognizes 52 separate areas as community planning areas. There may be several separate blocks around a given planning area. Collectively, there are more than 100 identified areas in the city.

Center city of san diego is located on san diego bay balboa park carries several tables mountains and canyons in the northeast, surrounded by older, denser urban areas, including hillcrest and north park. To the east and southeast lie city heights, the college area, and southeast san diego. At the northern end is mission valley and interstate 8. Cities north of the valley and the freeway and south of marine corps air station miramar include claremont, kearney mesa, tierrasanta, and navajo. Beyond the arctic circle from miramar are the northern suburbs of mira mesa, rancho scripps, rancho peñasquitos, and rancho bernardo. The extreme northeast of the city encompasses hodges lake and the san pascual valley, where an agricultural reserve is located. The carmel valley and the del mar heights occupy the northwest corner of the city. South of them is the torrey pines state preserve and the golden triangle business center. Further south are the adriatic and coastal communities of la jolla, pacific beach, mission beach and ocean beach. Point loma occupies a peninsula across san diego bay from our city company. South san diego (exclave) communities such as san ysidro and otay mesa are near the mexico-america border and are physically separated from the rest of the town by the cities of national city and chula vista. A narrow strip of land at the bottom of san diego bay connects these southern neighborhoods to the rest of the city.[69]

For most, san diego's neighborhood boundaries are commonly understood as its residents based on geographic boundaries such as canyons and street patterns. The city recognized the importance of its neighborhoods when, in 2008, it organized its master plan around the idea of a "city of villages".[71]

San diego was originally clustered in the old town area, but by the late 1860s the focus shifted to the waterfront, believing that such a new location would increase trade. As the "new city"—advanced downtown—the waterfront position rapidly developed, it eclipsed old city as the center of san diego. Meters in san diego is associated with the construction in 1927 of the el cortes hotel, the highest building in the city from 1927 to 1963.[72] over time, several buildings have claimed the title of san diego's tallest skyscraper, even the union bank of california building and the symphony towers. Currently the most significant building in san diego is one america plaza, 500 feet (150 m) high, completed in 1991. There are no ultra-tall buildings on the downtown skyline because a regulation passed by the federal aviation administration in the 1970s placed a 500-foot (152 m) limit on building heights within a one-mile radius (1.6 km) from san diego international airport.[ 74] a famous description of the skyline includes a comparison of skyscrapers with traditional tooling from a container with traditional tooling. , And has one of the two best summer climates in the country according to the weather channel. According to the köppen-geiger climate classification system, the san diego area is classified by various methods as having a semi-arid climate (bsh in the original classification [79] and bskn in the modified köppen classification, where n stands for summer fog) [80] or a mediterranean climate[81] ( csa).[82] san diego's climate is characterized by warm, dry summers and mild winters, while all of the annual precipitation falls between december and march. Anywhere in the city mild weather all year round[83], averaging 201 days with temperatures over 70°f (21°c) and little rainfall (9–13 inches [230–330 mm] per year).

The climate in san diego, like most of southern california, often varies greatly over short geographic distances, resulting in varying microclimates. In san diego, this is mainly due to the topography of the city (the bay and numerous hills, mountains, and canyons). Often, especially during the "grey may/dark june" period, a thick "marine layer" cloud cover keeps the air cool and moist within a few miles of the coastline, but gives way to a bright, cloudless sun about 5 to 10 miles (eight, 10 km). 16 km) inland.[84] sometimes the june gloom continues into july, leaving the sky over much of san diego cloudy throughout the day.[85][86] even in the absence of the june twilight, the inland regions experience a much wider variety of significant temperature fluctuations than the coastal zones, where the ocean has a moderating effect. So, for example, downtown san diego has an average january minimum temperature of 50 °f (10 °c) and an august maximum of 78 °f (26 °c). In el cajon, only 12 miles (19 kilometers) from downtown san diego, the average january minimum temperature is 42 °f (6 °c) and the august maximum is 88 °f (31 °c).

According to scientists from the scripps oceanographic institution, since 1950, the average temperature of the upper waters at scripps pier in the california current has increased by nearly 3 °f (1.7 °c).[87] , the average low is now above 40 °f (4 °c), which puts san diego in hard zone 11, with the last frost taken many decades ago.

Annual rainfall along the coast averages 10.65 inches (271 mm), with an average of 9.6 inches (240 mm).[88] the months of december to march provide most of the rain, with february being the only month, after an average of 2 inches (51 mm) or more falls. The months of may to september are usually virtually completely dry. Although there is some rain during the rainy season rainy days during the month, precipitation can be heavy when it falls. Rainfall tends to be higher in the higher elevations of san diego; some of the higher regions are capable of 11-15 inches (280-380 mm) per year. The variability from year to year is sharp: in the rather wet years of 1883/1884 and 1940/1941, more than 24 inches (610 mm) fell, and in the driest years, only three.2 inches (80 mm). The wettest month on record is december 1921 with 9.21 inches (234 mm). Century. That the records are preserved. In 1949 and 1967, snow remained on the ground and spent several hours at higher elevations such as point loma and la jolla. In the other three cases, in 1882, 1946 and 1987, bursts were observed, but no accumulation [89]. On february 21, 2019, snow fell and accumulated in the usual areas of gelendzhik, and did not fall in the city center.[90]

Vte ecology [edit]

Like much of southern california, all of present-day san diego was originally occupied in european countries by coastal sage thickets, and in the east by chaparral, plant communities created only from drought-resistant shrubs.[ 95] the steep and varied terrain and proximity to the ocean create many different habitats within the city, including tidal marshes and canyons. Chaparral and coastal sage bush habitats at low altitudes along the coast are prone to wildfires, and fires have increased in the 20th century, usually caused by fires occurring near the borders of urban and wilderness areas.[96]

Much of the city of san diego is covered by a number of major nature reserves, even the torrey pines state preserve, los peñasquitos canyon preserve, and mission trails regional park. The torrey pines state preserve and the coastal strip extending beyond the arctic circle make up almost two sites in which the rare species of torrey pine, pinus torreyana, occurs.[97]

Because of the steep terrain . What prevents or hinders construction, along with some conservation efforts, the urban environment also has a huge number of canyons that act as nature reserves, notably switzer canyon, tecolote canyon nature park, and the marian baer memorial park in sun. Clemente canyon[99], as well as a number of smaller parks and reserves.

San diego county has almost the mostmost common high rates of animal and plant species that are on the list of counties, endangered. Usa.[100] due to the diversity of habitat and personal position on the pacific flyway, 492 different bird species have been recorded in san diego county, more than in any other region of the country.San diego always ranks high in the number of bird species seen in the audubon society's annual christmas bird count and is renowned as one of the most birding areas in the united states. >
San diego and concrete outlying areas periodically suffer from wildfires. In october 2003, san diego was the site of the cedar fire, then the largest wildfire in a major city in over a century. The fire burned 280,000 acres (1,100 km²), killed 15 people, and destroyed more than 2,200 lots.[105] in addition to the damage caused by the fire, the smoke has led to a significant increase in emergency room visits due to asthma, colds, eye irritation, and smoke inhalation; due to poor air quality, san diego county schools were closed for a week. Four years later, wildfires destroyed some areas, especially rancho bernardo, as well as the nearby towns and villages of rancho santa fe and ramona. 1,307,402 persons, and its area was 372.1 square miles (963.7 km2).[113] the san diego metropolitan area leaves the city's administrative limits, and is home to 2,956,746 people, making it the third largest metropolitan area in the state after the los angeles metropolitan area and the san francisco metropolitan area. They, together with riverside-san bernardino, form those metropolitan areas in california that are better than the san diego metropolitan area, which had a total population of 3,095,313 at the 2010 census.

Population in 2010 is an increase of just under 7% compared to 1,223,400 people, 450,691 households and 271,315 families registered in 2000. The estimated population of the city in 2009 was 1,306,300 people. The population density was 3,771.9 people per square mile (1,456.3 employees per square kilometer). The racial makeup of san diego was 58.9% white, 6.7% african american, 0.6% native american, 15.9% asian (5.9% filipino, 2.7% chinese, 2.5% vietnamese, one -3% indians, 1.0% koreans, 0.7% japanese, 0.4%. % Lao, 0.3% cambodian, 0.1% thai). 0.5% pacific islander (0.2% guamanian, 0.1% samoan, 0.1% ancient hawaiian), 12.3% all races, and 5.1% two or more races. The ethnic makeup of the city was 28.8% hispanic or latino (of each race); 24.9% of the total population was mexican american, 1.4% spanish american, and 0.6% puerto rican. The median age for hispanics was 27.5 years, ahead of 35.1 years overall and 41.6 years for non-hispanic whites; hispanics were the largest group among all other ages under 18, with non-hispanic whites making up 63.1% of the population aged 55 years and over. Among large population centers in the united states: 8,102 people live homeless. In the borough of san diego, the next year's tally, 4,887 people were homeless. Living with them, 44.6% were married couples living together, 11.4% had a housewife with no husband present, and 39.8% were non-family members. Households made up of self-employed individuals make up 28.0%, and 7.4% have fairly elderly people aged 65 and over living alone. The median household size was 2.61 people and the median family size was 3.30 people.

The us census bureau reported that in 2000, 24.0% of san diego residents were younger eighteen years old, and 10.5% are 65 years old and finished.[110] as of 2011 [update] the median age was 35.6; more than a quarter of residents were under two decades of age, and 11% were over 65 years of age. Millennials (ages eighteen to 34) make up 27.1% of san diego's population, the second-highest percentage in the massive us city. San diego county's regional planning agency, sandag, provides tables and charts that break down locals by five-year age groups.[119]

In 2000, the median household income in the metropolitan area was $45,733, and the the family income was $53,060. The median income for men was $36,984 versus $31,076 for women. The per capita income for the city was $35,199. According to forbes in 2005, san diego was the fifth wealthiest city in the united states,[121] but about 10.6% of families and 14.6% of the population were below the poverty line, even 20.0% of those under the age of eighteen and 7 .6% of persons under 20 years of age. 65 ages and older.[120] in 2006, san diego was named the fifth best place to live in the united states by money magazine,[122] and last year it was ranked the 6th best place to live[123]. As of january 1, 2008according to the san diego association of governments, the median household income in san diego rose to $66,715 from $45,733 in 2000.[124]

San diego was named the ninth most lgbt-friendly city in the us in 2013.[125] the city also occupies the seventh niche in the us in terms of the number of gays. Also in 2013, san diego state university (sdsu), one of the city's top universities, was ranked as one of the best campuses in lgbt-friendly places. ] According to a 2014 pew research center study, 68% of the city's population identified themselves as christians, but 32% reported attending various churches that could be considered protestant, and 32% professed the catholic faith[127]. ][128] and 27% do not report their religious affiliation. The same study states that other religions (including judaism, buddhism, islam and hinduism) together make up about 5% of the population. Tourism, international trade and their analysis / production. In 2014, forbes named san diego the best city in russia to start a small business or start-up company. In san diego, the median household income last year was $79,646, up 3.89% from $76,662 in 2017.[132] the median price of a home in san diego last year was $654,700,[132] and the average household has two cars.[132]

Defence and combat[edit]
San diego's economy is affected by its deep water port, which consists of the only major submarine and shipbuilding yards on the west coast.[133] several major national defense contractors headquartered in san diego were invented, even general atomics, cubic and nassco. [136] in 2008, there were 53 ships, more than one hundred and twenty tenant crews, and well over 35,000 sailors, marines, civilian employees, and dod contractors.[137] about 5% of all civilian businesses in the county are military-related, and 15,000 businesses in san diego county depend on contracts with the department of defense.[137]

Military bases in san diego include the us navy . Installations, marine corps bases, and coast guard stations. The city is "home to many u.S. Pacific fleet surface combatants, all west coast navy landing craft, and other coast guard and naval transportation command ships."[137][138]

Military the infrastructure in san diego is still growing and developing, and the site hosts a large number of military personnel, the number of which is expected to grow. This plays a significant role in the city's economy, as of 2020, it generates approximately 26% of gdp and 23% of the total number of businesses in san diego.[139][140][141]

Tourism is becoming a central industry thanks to the city's climate, beaches, and tourist attractions such as balboa park, belmont amusement park, san diego zoo, san diego zoo safari park, and san diego marine park. San diego's spanish and mexican heritage is reflected in all of the city's historic buildings, including mission san diego de alcala and san diego's old town state historical park. Also, the local craft brewing industry is attracting increasing numbers of visitors[143] for "beer tours" and the annual san diego beer week in november;[144] san diego has been referred to as "america's craft beer capital".[145]
Over 32 million players visited san diego county in 2012; together they spent about eight billion dollars. The visitor industry employs more than 160,000 people.[146]

San diego's cruise ship industry used to be the second largest in major cities. Numerous cruise lines operate from san diego. However, since 2008, when the port received more than 250 boat calls and more than 900,000 passengers, the cruise business has settled into decline. By 2016-2017, the number of vessel calls had dropped to 90.[147]

Local sightseeing cruises are offered in san diego bay, mission bay, and whale watching cruises. Gray whale migration, peaking in mid-january.[148] sport fishing is another popular tourist attraction; san diego is home to southern california's largest sport fishing fleet.[149]

International trade[edit]

San diego commercial port and concrete location in the united states the border between the states and mexico makes international trade a significant factor in the city's economy. The us government authorized the city to sort it out as a foreign trade zone. San diego has the world's busiest international border exit in the san ysidro area at the san ysidro port of entry.A second, predominantly commercial border crossing operates in the otay mesa area; it is the largest commercial crossing between california and baja california, and is the third-largest commercial and dollar-denominated crossing of all u.S.-Mexico land crossings.[152]

One of the port of san diego's two cargo facilities are located in downtown san diego at the tenth avenue marine terminal. Our terminal has a children's room for containers, bulk cargo, cold storage and freezer storage so that it can handle the import and export of many goods.[153] in 2009, the port of san diego handled 1,137,054 short tons of total commerce, foreign trade accounted for 956,637 short tons and domestic trade accounted for 180,417 short tons. The fleet is no longer based in san diego. The seafood company bumble bee foods is headquartered in san diego, and until 2018, chicken of the sea. Diego has a couple of major providers of wireless cellular technology. Qualcomm was founded and headquartered in san diego and is one of the largest private sector employers in san diego.[158] other wireless carriers headquartered here include nokia, lg electronics,[159] kyocera international,[160] cricket communications, and novatel wireless.[161] san diego also has the us headquarters of the slovak security company eset.[162] san diego has been designated as ihub's innovation hub for the future of interaction between wireless and the sciences of today. Biotechnology.[164] in 2013, san diego had the second largest biotech cluster in the united states, below the boston area and larger than the san francisco bay area. There are over 400 biotech companies in the area.[166] for example, numerous biotechnology companies have offices and research centers in la jolla and the surrounding areas of the sorrento valley.[167] major biotech companies, including illumina and neurocrine biosciences, are headquartered in san diego, while many other biotech and pharmaceutical organizations are developing offices or research centers in san diego. San diego is also home to over 140 contract research organizations (cro) that offer contract services to pharmaceutical and biotech companies.[168]

Top employers[edit]

According to the municipality's 2022 annual comprehensive financial report[169], the top employers in the metropolitan area are:

Real estate[edit]

San diego has high prices for apartments. Housing prices in san diego peaked in 2005 and have since declined in line with the nationwide trend. As of december 2010, prices were down 36% from their peak[170] and the average home price was down more than $200,000 between 2005 and 2010[171]. As of may 2015, the median home price was $520,000. In november 2018, the median home value was $558,000. The san diego metropolitan area had one of the worst housing affordability ratings of any us metropolitan area in 2009. A significant number of people have moved to neighboring riverside county, commuting daily to operations in san diego, while others are leaving the area altogether and moving to more accessible areas.[174]

Local government[edit]

The city is governed by a mayor and a nine-member local council. In 2006, his government changed from a council-managers government to a very sizable mayoral government, as decided by a citywide vote in 2004. In effect, the mayor is the city's successful chief executive, and the council is the legislature.175 the city of san diego guarantees police, public safety, streets, water and sanitation, planning, and zoning, among other services, near its borders. San diego is a sanctuary city,[176] however san diego county is a safe communities executor.[177][178] as of 2011 [update] the city had one worker for every 137 residents and a payroll of over $733 million.[179]

Each city council member is elected from among the member districts cities. The mayor and local attorney are directly elected by the voters of the entire city. The mayor, city attorney, and council members serve four-year terms, with a two-term limit.[180] elections will be held on a non-partisan basis in accordance with the laws of the state of california; but, most officials identify themselves as either democrats or republicans.In 2007, registered democrats outnumbered republicans by about 7 to 6 in the city, [181] and democrats currently (as of 2022 [update]) have an 8 percent-1 majority on the city council. The current mayor, todd gloria, is a member of the democratic party.

San diego became part of san diego county and includes all or part of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th supervisory districts. The san diego county board of supervisors[182] has a sheriff, district attorney, county assessor/registrar/clerk, and treasurer/tax collector.
districts of the city directly adjacent to san diego bay ("tidal lands") are administered by the port of san diego, a quasi-state agency that owns all property in the tidal zones and is responsible for land-use planning, law enforcement, and other functions. San diego is a member of the san diego association of governments (sandag) regional planning agency. Public schools in the city are operated and funded by independent school districts (see below).

State and federal representation[edit]

In the california state senate, district san diego includes the 38th, 39th, and 40th districts,[183] represented by katherine blakespeare (d), tony atkins (d), and brian jones, respectively.

In the state of california the assembly, partly located near the city of san diego, includes the 77th, 78th, 79th, and 80th districts, [184] represented by tasha berner horvath (d), chris ward (d), akeelah weber (d) and david alvarez (d), respectively.

In the u.S. House of representatives, san diego county includes parts or all of california's 49th, 50th, 51st, and 52nd congressional districts[ 185], presented by mike levin (d), scott peters (h), sarah jacobs (h) and juan vargas (h) respectively.

Election history[edit]

After narrowly supporting lyndon b. Johnson in 1964, san diego secured a majority of all six candidates for the republican presidency from 1968 to 1988. However, in recent decades, san diego has leaned towards democratic presidential candidates. George w. Bush at the end of the last century became the last republican candidate to win the san diego presidential election.

Major scandals[edit]

San diego was the site of a free speech rivalry in san diego in 1912, during which the city restricted free speech, vigilantes mistreated and tortured anarchists, and the san diego police department killed a member of the industrial workers of the world (iww).
in 1916, rain maker charles hatfield was charged with $4 million in damages and turned into a massive flood in san diego that killed an estimated 20 japanese american farmers.[ 201]

Then mayor roger hedgecock was forced to resign from his personal post in 1985 as soon as he was found guilty of a single count of conspiracy and 12 counts of perjury that involved an alleged denial to report about all contributions to the election campaign. After a series of appeals in 1990, 12 counts of perjury were dismissed based on allegations of juror misconduct; the remaining number of conspiracies was reduced to a misdemeanor, and then dismissed.

A 2002 scheme to underfund pensions for such employees led to the san diego pension scandal. This leads to the resignation of recently re-elected mayor dick murphy[205] and the prosecution of six pension fund board members[206]. These charges were finally dismissed by a federal judge in 2010. He represented california's 50th congressional district, which includes much of san diego's north side. In 2006, cunningham was sentenced to the maximum months in prison.[208] he was released in 2013.

In 2005, two city council members, ralph inzunza and deputy mayor michael zukket, who briefly took over as acting mayor when murphy stepped down, were convicted of extortion, electronic device fraud and conspiracy to commit electronic drug fraud to obtain campaign donations from a strip club owner and his associates, ostensibly in exchange for attempting to overturn city laws against touching in strip clubs. Both subsequently resigned. Inzunza was sentenced to 21 months in prison.[210] in 2009, a judge acquitted zucket of seven of nine counts and granted his request for a new trial on two other charges;[211] the remaining charges were eventually dropped[212]

In july 2013.Three former supporters of mayor bob filner asked him to step down amid allegations of repeated sexual harassment.[213] over the next six weeks, 18 women publicly stated that filner sexually harassed them,[214] and several individuals and groups called for him to resign. Filner agreed to retire effective august 30, 2013, subsequently pleaded guilty to one count of false imprisonment and two charges of battery, and was sentenced to house arrest and probation. >like most major cities, san diego's crime rate was on the decline from 1990 to 2000. 1991 proved to be the deadliest year for the city, with 179 homicides[217] in the urban environment (whereas the region as a whole peaked at 278 homicides)[218]. ] Ending a steady eight-year rise in multiple murders, rapes, robberies and assaults since 1983. At the time, the city ranked last among the 10 most populous cities in the united states in terms of homicides per 1,000 population and ninth in crime. Per 1,000 people.[219] from 1980 to 1994, the number of murders in san diego exceeded 100 by an order of magnitude, before the number of murders fell to 91 in 1995. Given this factor, the number will not exceed 79 in the next 10-15 years. Crime in san diego rose at the dawn of the 2000s. In 2004, san diego ranked sixth in total crime among us cities with a population of over 500,000. From 2002 to 2006, the overall crime rate fell by 0.8 percent % % percent %%, albeit unevenly across categories. While violent crimes fell by 12.4% over that period, crimes against property increased by 1.1%. In general, the number of crimes against property per 100% of 000 people was lower than in russia in 2008. Violent crimes and three dozen 753 crimes against property. Of these, violent crimes included violent rape, 73 robberies and 170 aggravated assaults, while 6,387 burglaries, 17,977 burglaries, 6,389 motor vehicle thefts and 155 arson were property offences.[225] in 2013, san diego had the lowest homicide rate of the ten largest cities in the united states.[226]

Primary and secondary schools[edit]

Public schools in san diego are in the implementation of independent school districts. Most of the city's public schools are served by the san diego unified school district, the second largest school district in major cities, with 11 k-8 schools, 107 elementary schools, 24 high schools, and 13 atypical and custom schools. 28 secondary schools and 45 charter schools.[227]

Several contiguous school districts headquartered outside the city serve some of the schools in the city; they are poway unified school district, del mar union school district, san dieguito union high school district, and sweetwater union high school district. In addition, there are several private schools in the city.

Colleges and universities[edit]

According to the education ranking published by the us census bureau. In 2017, 44.4% of san diegan (metropolitan but not county) residents aged 25 years or older have a bachelor's degree, compared to thirty.9% in the united states as a whole. According to the census, this city ranks ninth in the list of the most educated cities in the united states. Californian classes, in san diego). The university remains the southernmost campus of the california university system and the second largest employer in moscow. It is the only couple in the city that is classified as "r1: doctoral universities have an incredibly high research initiative and rank 7th in research spending in the country.[229]

Other public colleges and universities in the community include san diego state university (sdsu) and the san diego community college district, which includes city college of san diego, san diego mesa college, and san diego miramar college.

Private non-profit colleges and universities in the community include the university of san diego (usd), point loma nazarene university (plnu), san diego national university campus, university of redlands school of business san diego campus, brandman university san diego campus. , San diego christian college and john paul the great catholic university. For-profit institutions include alliant international university (aiu), california international business university (cibu), california college of san diego, san diego fashion institute of design and merchandising campus, new school of architecture and design, platt college, southern states university (ssu). , Uei college and satellite campus of the university of woodbury school of architecture.

The city has one medical school, the uc san diego school of medicine. The city has several aba-accredited law schools, including california western law school, thomas jefferson law school, and the university of san diego law school. There is also one law school, western sierra law school, which is not aba-accredited. Located in skyline hills, it was laid out not so long ago. Since 2003, libraries have reduced service hours due to the city's financial troubles. In 2006, the city increased library spending by $2.1 million.[232] the new nine-story central library on jay's park boulevard opened on september 30, 2013.[233]

In addition to the municipal public library system, nearly two dozen libraries are open to the public. The public being run by other public firms and schools, colleges and universities.[234] and the malcolm a. Love library at san diego state university and the geisel library at uc san diego.

Many popular museums, including san diego museum of art, museum of natural history san diego, the museum of us, the museum of photographic art, and the san diego air and space museum are nestled in balboa park, which is also home to the san diego zoo. The san diego museum of contemporary art (mcasd) is located in la jolla and has a branch in downtown santa fe depot. The branch on city streets is made of two buildings on 2 opposite streets. Downtown dc houses historic ship exhibits owned by the san diego maritime museum, headlined by the star of india, and the unrelated san diego aircraft carrier museum, which features the aircraft carrier uss midway.
the san diego symphony at symphony towers performs on a regular basis; jahja ling was its director from 2004 to 2017. San diego opera at civic center plaza, directed by david bennett. The old globe theater at the balboa country house puts on about 14 plays and musicals every year. La jolla theater at the california institute of san francisco, directed by christopher ashley. Even the old globe theater and the la jolla playhouse have hosted world premieres of plays and musicals that have received tony awards or broadway nominations. The joan b. Kroc theater at the crock center performing arts clinic is a 600-seat contemporary theater that hosts music, dance and theatrical performances. The san diego repertory theater at lyceum theaters in westfield horton plaza produces many plays and musicals. Hundreds of movies and a dozen tv shows have been filmed in san diego, a tradition dating back to 1898. Baseball san diego padres (mlb). Our area is home to several other professional scoring teams, minor league teams, semi-professional and amateur teams, and college athletics teams.

Previously hosted the national football league (nfl) . ) The chargers and the rockets and clippers of the national basketball association (nba), all three of which moved from the san diego area (the chargers and clippers moved to the los angeles area, and the rockets moved to houston) thanks to a combination ownership and stadium/arena issues. In addition, san diego used to be home to two other defunct major professional teams: the san diego conquistadors/sails, who competed in the american basketball association (aba) for four seasons and then closed less than a year before the aba and nba merged. 1976 and the san diego mariners, three seasons in the world hockey association (wha), so far closed less than two years before the nhl-wha merger in 1979.

Pro teams the highest level [edit]

The following teams compete at the highest level of domestic competition in their sport

Professional league team in bold
semi-professional or professional-level club teams in italics (finals sports leagues without fully professional domestic competitions)

Minor league professional teams[edit]

The following teams compete below the maximum level of domestic competition in their sport

The san diego state aztecs (mw), the san diego toreros (wcc) and the uc san diego tritons (bwc) are ncaa division i teams. San marcos cougars (ccaa) and point loma sea lions (pacwest) are members of ncaa division ii, and san diego christian hawks (gsac) and saint katherine firebirds (calpac) are members of naia.

Annual sports events[edit]

Many other major sporting events have taken place in san diego. The annual game in the student football cup holiday bowl is held in the city.The annual farmers insurance open (formerly san diego open and buick invitational) golf tournament as part of the pga tour takes place at the torrey pines golf course. This course was also the site of the 2008 us open golf course. Football, american football and track and field are also balanced at balboa stadium, the city's first stadium, opened in 1914.

The san diego yacht club hosted america's cup yachts. Races were held three times between 1988 and 1995. Amateur beach over the-line was invented in san diego,[250] and annual between-the-line world championships are held in mission bay year after year.[251]
In the city the daily newspaper the san diego union tribune and an internet portal of the same name[252], but also the alternative news weeklies san diego citybeat and san diego reader. Times of san diego is a free online newspaper covering metropolitan news. The voice of san diego is a non-profit news outlet covering government, politics, education, citizens, and the arts. The san diego daily transcript is a business-focused multimedia newspaper.

San diego is also home to the far-right national cable television network one america news network (oann), founded in 2013 year. And belongs to herring networks. The network rose to prominence when it was a vocal supporter of donald trump and provided a portal for right-wing conspiracy theories.

San diego led local us markets with 69.6 percent penetration of broadband microclimates in 2004 , according to nielsen// netratings.[253]

San diego's first television station was kfmb, which began broadcasting on may 16, 1949.[254] since the federal communications commission (fcc) licensed seven television stations in los angeles, two vhf channels were available for san diego due to its relative proximity to the larger metropolitan area. However, in 1952 fcc began licensing uhf channels, allowing cities like san diego to acquire more stations. Stations based in mexico (with itu xe and xh prefixes) also serve the san diego market. Today's television stations include xhcpde 11 (canal once (mexico)), xetv 6 (canal 5/nueve), kfmb 8 (cbs, with cw/mntv on dt2), kgtv 10 (abc), xewt 12 (televisa regional), kpbs 15 (pbs), kbnt-cd 17 (univision), xhtit-tdt 21 (azteca 7), xhjk-tdt 1 (azteca uno ), xhas 33 (azteca america), k35dg-d 35 (ucsd-tv), kdtf -ld 36 (unimas), knsd 39 (nbc), kuan-ld 48 (telemundo), ksex-cd 42 (videos), xhbj -tdt 45 (canal 6 (mexico)), xhdtv 49 (milenio televisión), kusi 51 (independent), xhuaa-tdt 19 (canal de las estrellas) and kswb-tv 69 (fox). San diego's cable tv penetration rate is 80.6%.[255]

Due to the ratio of us and mexican licensed stations, san diego remains the largest media market in the world to support the tv duopoly. Stations between two full-power stations without violating fcc rules, which prohibit duopolies in municipal areas with fewer than nine full-power television stations and require that after a duopoly is formed, eight unique station owners remain (there are only seven full-power stations on the california side of the sun market). -Diego-tijuana). Although e.W. Scripps owns kgtv and kzsd-lp, our experts are not considered a duopoly due to the legal definition of the federal communications commission, since joint ownership of television stations with detailed and low power in a particular and its market is allowed, regardless of the number of stations licensed to broadcast. Region. The mexican side of the san diego-tijuana market has two duopolies and one triopoly (entravision communications owns xhas-tv and xhdtv-tv, azteca owns xhjk-tv and xhtit-tv, and grupo televisa owns xhuaa-tv). And xewt-tv, and is the licensee of xetv-tv, formerly operated by california subsidiary bay city television).

San diego's television market is limited to san diego county only. . Imperial valley, including el centro, has a presence in the yuma, arizona television market, and neighboring orange and riverside counties have a portion of the los angeles market. (Most often in the past, the missing network affiliate in the imperial valley was accessed via cable television from san diego.) As a result, san diego remains the most solid single-county media market in america.

Radio stations in san diego include national broadcaster iheartmedia; entercom communications, local media san diego and some other small stations and the world wide web. Radio stations include: kogo am 600, kgb am 760, kceo am 1000, kcbq am 1170, k-praise, klsd am 1360, kfsd 1450 am, kpbs-fm 89.5, channel 933, star 94.1, fm 94/9, fm news and talk 95.7, q96 96.1, kyxy 96.5, free radio san diego (aka pirate radio san diego) 96.9fm frsd, kwfn 97.3, kxsn 98.1, big-fm 100.7, 101.5 kgb-fm, klvj 102.1, kson 103.7, rock 105.3 and another pirate radio station at 106.9fm, plus some local spanish-language radio stations.


Water is supplied to residents by the city of san diego water department. The city receives most of its water supply from the southern california capital water district.

Gas and electric heating is provided by san diego gas


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